When I came across commentary about Hillbilly Elegy by J. D. Vance, I thought about what I knew of the history of the region and it didn't sit right. So I never did read it. I figured that I wouldn't get any fresh insight from Vance. I read Kephart's Our Southern Highlanders many years ago. So I'm familiar with that perspective. I was glad to come across What You Are Getting Wrong About Appalachia by historian Elizabeth Catte who is also native to the region. I thought I could learn something from Catte's book.
I already knew that Appalachians were portrayed as backwards as an excuse to seize their land. Catte tells us about Kentucky widow Ollie Combs trying to block the bulldozers that were destroying her house in 1965. (See a page on Appalachian Women on the Appalachian Voices website.) The company made the argument that Combs owned everything above ground, but the mining company had purchased the resources underneath her property. The house stood in the way of extracting that mineral wealth. Ollie Combs was arrested. Catte tells us that Bill Strode, the Pulitzer Prize winning photojournalist who documented Ollie Combs' act of resistance, was also arrested. (See the article about Bill Strode on Wikipedia.)
It wasn't just about the destruction of the environment though that was also a serious issue. It was about taking everything these people had--their homes and the farms that were their livelihood. This is the root cause of Appalachian poverty.
Before the labor regulations of the New Deal, the mining companies didn't treat their Appalachian employees much better. You can find out more about the serious exploitation that was going on by reading the History Channel's article about the Battle of Blair Mountain in West Virginia, which was called "the largest labor uprising" in American history. Although I was aware of the intense labor struggle between miners and mine owners in West Virginia, I learned from Catte that the mine owners actually had a private army which was dropping bombs on the strikers from private planes. The fight to preserve Blair Mountain as a historical site is currently ongoing. It's slated for mountaintop removal mining. (See this article on the Progressive.org website.)
Catte also mentions Black Appalachians in her book. If you read Vance's book you'd think that there were no African Americans in Appalachia.
Elizabeth Catte has an extensive bibliography to bolster her arguments. It was refreshing to see her perspective. She successfully proves that there have been and still are Appalachian radicals, and that the population of Appalachia is more ethnically diverse than Vance portrays.